Differences between Sumer and Egypt

Last Updated on March 19, 2022 by QCity Editorial Stuff

The civilizations of Egypt and Sumer had many differences. One major difference is that the people of Egypt depended on farming to survive, while the people of Sumer depended on trade. The civilization of Egypt was located in a hot desert area where plants did not grow well. On the other hand, the civilization of Sumer was located in an area with lots of resources that they could trade for goods that they wanted.

Sumeria was the first civilization that we know of. It is located in the southern part of Mesopotamia which is now Iraq. The people who lived in Sumeria were called Sumerians and they lived there from around 4000 BC to 2000 BC. Sumerians built walls around their cities, used irrigation systems to grow food, and made clothing and jewelry out of animal skins and clay. Some of their greatest accomplishments were writing and inventing a system of mathematics.

There are many differences between Sumer and Egypt, but one of the most apparent is their government. Sumer was the world’s first-ever civilization, which had a society ruled by kings who were absolute dictators. Pharaohs ruled Egypt in a more balanced way with power being shared amongst both the pharaoh and his subjects.

Comparison between Sumer and Egypt

Parameters of Comparison  SumerEgypt  
CityThe first cities on earth were in Sumer.Old city
WritingThe Sumerians were the first peoples to use a system of writingThe Egyptians used papyrus for writing.
SlavesUsed slavesUsed slaves
ScriptThe Sumerians used cuneiform script.  The Egyptians used hieroglyphics.  

What is Sumer?

Sumer is a region in Mesopotamia, located to the south of the Tigris River. The people of Sumer are regarded as the first civilization with written language and “first great power in the world.” Sumerians invented clay tablets which they would use for trade and to relay messages. They were also one of the first groups to invent writing.

Sumer is the earliest known civilization in the world, located in modern-day Iraq. It’s believed that Sumerian people started around 4500 BC and lasted until about 2000 BC. The oldest written evidence of their culture can still be found today on tablets made of clay called cuneiform, which were used to keep track of trade and business transactions.

Sumer is an ancient civilization that dates back to the 4th millennium BC. A Sumerian culture centered on the city of Ur and the region of southern Iraq. The most important cultural center was Ur, with many archeological sites such as Uruk and Lagash. These were inhabited by the people of Sumerian origin who spoke a dialect called Sumerian.

Differences between Sumer and Egypt

What is Egypt?

Egypt is a country that stretches from the Mediterranean coast to the Red Sea. The Nile River flows through the country, and, for many Egyptians, it provides a way of life. The Nile’s natural resources have helped to establish a diverse agriculture sector in Egypt. The country has a population of 92 million people and a GDP of $370 billion.

Egypt is a country that can be found near the eastern coast of Africa. It is located between Sudan, Libya, and the Sinai Peninsula. It covers about 970,000 square miles. Egypt has a population of 89 million people. They speak Arabic or English in most places with an estimated 40% living below the poverty line. The government type is a semi-presidential republic.

Many people in the world know that Egypt is a country. It is in Africa, and it has one of the longest histories of any country in the world. The Ancient Egyptians built a great civilization there, and for ancient people, it was seen as a place of mystery and magic. However, this ancient history is often overshadowed by the events of our day: revolution, violence, and terrorism.

Differences between Sumer and Egypt

10 Differences between Sumer and Egypt

1. The first cities on earth were in Sumer, one of them is Uruk.

2. The Sumerians were the first people to use a system of writing.

3. The Egyptians used papyrus for writing.

4. Sumerian scribes were the first known authors.

5. Sumerians and Egyptians both used slaves.

6. The Sumerians used cuneiform script.

7. The Egyptians used hieroglyphics.

8. The Egyptians used stone to build architectural structures.

9. The Egyptians used papyrus to build architectural structures.

10. The Sumerian and Egyptian cultures had very similar religions.

Interesting Statistics or Facts of Sumer

1. Sumer was one of the first civilizations in the world.

2. Sumerians invented the wheel.

3. The people of Sumer were merchants.

4. The first written language was invented in Sumer.

5. Sumerians were the first to invent agriculture.

6. Sumerians were the first to invent the mathematics.

7. Sumerians created the first system of government.

8. Sumerians invented the first schools.

9. Life expectancy in Sumer was very low.

10. Life expectancy in Sumer was about 25 years.

Interesting Statistics or Facts of Egypt

1. Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East.

2. It is the biggest country in Africa and the second biggest country in the Arab world.

3. More than 85% of the population is Muslims.

4. The majority of the population live along the banks of the Nile.

5. The country has a very diverse landscape.

6. It is a melting pot of African, Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern cultures.

7. The capital city is Cairo.

8. The official languages are Arabic and English.

9. Although a majority of the population are Muslims, The Coptic Orthodox Church is the largest Christian church in the country.

10. The country is divided into 27 governorates, with Cairo being its capital.


In conclusion, the differences between Sumer and Egypt are not as pronounced as one would think. Although their histories begin in two different places, they both had a high dependence on the river, a strong agricultural presence, a prioritization of trade and culture, and a centralized bureaucracy. The differences between these two ancient civilizations are many but it is important to see beyond the surface level. They had many similarities that were powerful enough to carry them into our modern world.



Resource 01: https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-middle-east/sumer#:~:text
Resource 02: https://www.egyptair.com/en/pages/homepage.aspx

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