Differences Between Eastern and Western Roman Empire

Last Updated on March 19, 2022 by QCity Editorial Stuff

The Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire were two empires that ruled over different regions in Europe and Asia. The East was mainly comprised of Greece, Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt while the West had Rome as their capital city. These two empires shared a common history for centuries but eventually went their separate ways. It is important to know about this division because it shaped much of what we see today such as the languages spoken in these regions or even how Christianity spread among them.

The Eastern and Western Roman Empires had many differences, but the most significant difference is that the Eastern Empire was based in Constantinople while the Western Empire was based in Rome. The Eastern empire consisted of people from many different cultures and religions, while the Western empire remained mainly Christian. It also should be noted that because of its location on land surrounded by water, Constantinople did not have to worry about invasions as Rome did.

Comparison between Eastern and Western Roman Empire

Parameters of Comparison  Eastern Roman EmpireWestern Roman Empire  
ContinuationThe Eastern Roman Empire was a continuation of the original Roman Empirethe Western Roman Empire began as a new empire in 476 AD  
Control landMuch more landControl less land
ProvinceIn 395 AD, Emperor Arcadius split his territory into two – one for himself and one for his son During the 5th century AD, most of Rome’s western provinces were invaded by Germanic tribes 
PopulationMany populationsLess population
Living standardThe higher standard of livingThe normal standard of living

Who is Eastern Empire?

The Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire, is one of the most famous and longest-lasting empires in world history. Formed after the division of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, it lasted for over 1,000 years before finally falling to Ottoman Turks in 1453 AD. Despite its impressive longevity, many people are unsure exactly what constituted this empire or what made it so successful for so long. In this blog post, we will explore these questions and more to help give you a better understanding of one of history’s most fascinating empires.

The Eastern Roman Empire was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East. It lasted from 395 until 1453 when Constantinople (now Istanbul) fell to Ottoman Turks. The empire’s capital was at first Nicaea and then later Constantinople. The eastern provinces formed what is now modern-day Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel/Palestine, Jordan, and Egypt. From 324-337 AD Constantine I moved his imperial capital eastward to Byzantium which he renamed Constantinople after himself (the original name for this city was Byzas). After Rome’s fall in 476 AD, it became known as the Byzantine Empire or “Romania”.

Differences Between Eastern and Western Roman Empire

Who is Western Roman Empire?

The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire. The empire was split in two following a series of revolts and civil wars, with an Eastern Roman Empire continuing for centuries after this time. When did it happen? It happened in 476 AD when Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed by Odoacer, who became King of Italy and ended any realistic chance that Rome could be restored as a single polity. What caused it? Several factors including economic decline, political disunity, military losses in foreign conquests, and diminished manpower due to plague all played a key role in its demise. Why is it important? It’s important because without this empire there would not have been so much cultural influence on the modern world today.

Differences Between Eastern and Western Roman Empire

10 Differences Between Eastern and Western Roman Empire

1. The Western Roman Empire was much larger than the Eastern, covering more territory.

2. In the East, Christian worship became a major religion and in the West, it remained pagan for longer.

3. In Western Rome many emperors tried to take power from one another while in the East fewer rulers were vying for control.

4. The Eastern Empire focused on trade and economic development while Western Europe focused on military conquests.

5. After conquering Jerusalem in 638 AD, Muslims ruled over both empires until 1453 when Constantinople fell to Ottoman Turks.

6. Both empires had an enormous impact on world culture but they differed greatly due to their geographical location.

7. The Eastern Roman Empire was based in Constantinople while the Western Roman Empire was based in Rome.

8. There were two different languages used, Greek and Latin.

9. Christianity began to spread throughout the Western Roman Empire before it did so in the East.

10. The Eastern Romans had a more advanced military than the West.

Interesting Statistics or Facts of Eastern Empire

1. Eastern Roman Empire had a total population of about 20 million people.

2. Eastern Roman Empire was the only superpower in Europe for over 1,000 years.

3. Eastern Roman Empire is responsible for some of the most iconic structures in history, including Hagia Sophia and Theodosius Walls.

4. Eastern Roman Empire was also an economic powerhouse with one of the largest empires spanning from Western Asia to North Africa.

5. Women were able to serve as generals or emperors during this period.

6. There are still many ruins left behind after its collapse that can be visited today.

Interesting Statistics or Facts of Roman Empire

1. The Roman Empire was the most powerful and largest in the world.

2. The Romans had a system of roads that connected all parts of their empire.

3. Rome’s population grew from 1 million to 8 million people during its height.

4. Emperor Trajan led an army to conquer Dacia, which is modern-day Romania.

5. Julius Caesar conquered Britain, France, Spain, and Germany before he was assassinated by Brutus.

6. Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity after his victory over Maxentius at Milvian Bridge.


The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century AD due to several factors, including economic instability and barbarian invasions. The Eastern Roman Empire continued for another 1000 years before it too was conquered by Ottoman Turks in 1453. One difference between these two empires is that while the West became increasingly illiterate, the East retained its literary culture throughout this period. Second, women were able to participate more fully in society during the Byzantine era than they did under Rome’s influence. They could even become empresses if their fathers died without any sons! This contrast resulted from how Christianity influenced each empire’s social structure–the Christian Church gave greater importance to female monastics over male clergymen who led families outside of their religious lives. Another difference is that the Eastern Empire was much more urbanized and had a larger population than the West.


Resource 01: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_Empire
Resource 02: https://www.worldhistory.org/Western_Roman_Empire/

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