Republic vs Roman Empire

Last Updated on March 19, 2022 by QCity Editorial Stuff

The Roman Republic and the Roman Empire were two powerful empires that ruled over a large swath of Europe and North Africa. The similarities between these two empires are many, but there are also many differences. One significant difference is that while the Roman Republic was more democratic, with power shared by different people in government, the Roman Empire became more autocratic as time went on. 

The Roman Republic and Roman Empire are two different periods in time that were separated by a significant gap. The major difference between these two periods was the form of government from a republic to an empire. For this blog post to be more engaging, there will be a paragraph talking about what each period was like before moving on to the main topic which is the differences between them. 

The Roman Republic lasted for roughly four centuries starting around 509 BC when Rome gained independence from the Etruscan rule. The people during this period had power over their leaders and they elected representatives who would then vote on laws and proposals put forth by citizens. This period also saw an expansion of territory through conquest, incorporating territories into Italy as well as expanding into Gaul, Iberia, and Greece. The Roman Empire was an autocratic state that was ruled by a single ruler, the emperor.

Comparison between the Roman Republic and Roman Empire

Parameters of ComparisonRoman RepublicRoman Empire
SystemThe Roman Republic was a republic with elected officialsthe Roman Empire had an emperor  
PowerIn the Roman Republic, two consuls served as executive officersemperor exercised absolute power
CitizenCitizens of Rome could vote for their representatives in government during a censuscitizens of Rome had no such rights under the empire  
OfficialUnder the republic, public officials tended to be wealthy aristocrats from noble familiesunder the empire, most emperors came from non-aristocratic backgrounds
FreedomMore freedomLess freedom

What is the Roman Republic?

The Roman Republic was a period in which Rome had become an empire. It is characterized by the end of the monarchy, and the beginning of both political and economic crises. There are many theories as to what caused this downfall including how Rome’s government became corrupt, immoral, excessively wealthy, or simply outdated. The fall of Rome can also be attributed to external factors such as how they were constantly at war with other countries like Greece for instance. Regardless it didn’t take long before their military weakened from constant combat and their economy suffered from civil unrest.

The Roman Republic was a period in the history of Rome, lasting from the overthrow of the monarchy in 509 BC to the establishment of the Roman Empire in 27 BC. It is often considered to be the first form of government established by Romans after they regained their independence from the Etruscan rule. The Roman Republic was a federal state with a complex system of government, and it was divided into two classes: elected officials who represented the people and appointed officials who represented the Senate. The government also had three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Over time, however, election laws were changed so that only landowners could vote, and wealth became more important than military service in determining eligibility for office. As a result, many wealthy landowners began to wield great power over elections leading to political unrest, and eventually civil war.

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What is Roman Empire?

The Roman Empire was one of the largest empires in the world. It was a major political and cultural force in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East for centuries. The Roman Empire is best known for its art, literature, and monuments. However, it also played a significant role in history as a major military power. Despite its size and power, the Roman Empire ultimately fell victim to its internal strife and political turmoil.

It lasted for over two centuries and at its peak controlled a territory that extended from Britain to North Africa and from Spain to the Middle East. The Roman Empire was a major cultural and political force in the Western world and left a lasting legacy. In this article, we will explore the origins, rise, and fall of the Roman Empire.

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10 Differences Between the Roman Republic and Roman Empire

1. The Roman Republic was a republic with elected officials, while the Roman Empire had an emperor.

2. In the Roman Republic, two consuls served as executive officers and held veto power over one another’s decisions; in the empire, the emperor exercised absolute power.

3. Citizens of Rome could vote for their representatives in government during a census; citizens of Rome had no such rights under the empire.

4. Under the republic, public officials tended to be wealthy aristocrats from noble families; under the empire, most emperors came from non-aristocratic backgrounds.

5. During its existence as a republic (509 BC – 27 BC), Rome experienced periods of both prosperity and decline; under imperial rule (27 BC – 476 AD) it saw continuous growth until it broke apart into several states.

6. The Romans established many colonies throughout Western Europe during their time as a republic; they did not establish any new colonies after becoming an imperial power.

7. In the republic, citizens could vote and speak their minds freely; under the empire, these rights were limited to only some people.

8. Citizens of Rome had more freedoms during republican times than they did during imperial times.

9. In Republican Rome, there was no senate or Emperor – all decisions were made by elected officials from each of Rome’s tribes.

10. Under Imperial rule, senators became very powerful and lived luxurious lives with many privileges not afforded to most Romans.

Interesting Statistics or Facts of Roman Republic

1. The Roman Republic was founded in 509 BC.

2. The republic lasted for about 500 years until Julius Caesar became dictator.

3. In the year 44 BC, the republic ended when Julius Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Brutus and Cassius.

4. Rome’s founder Romulus is said to have been raised by a she-wolf on Mount Palatine, which gave him his name “Romulus” meaning “of the wolf.

5. Rome had many wars with Carthage and won them all because they were able to defeat their enemies using their superior military power.

6. The army at this time was made up of citizens who would fight for Rome under strict rules – these soldiers were called legionaries or legions and they wore uniforms that resembled those worn today in some countries’ armies such as France’s Legion d’Honneur (the French honor guard).

Interesting Statistics or Facts of Roman Empire

1. The Roman Empire was the largest in history.

2. Rome had a population of 50 million people.

3. Emperor Nero’s reign was one of the most brutal, with many executions and persecutions.

4. Ancient Rome developed its alphabet called Latin to write down their language.

5. Rome lost power because they were too busy fighting each other for power.

6. The fall of the Roman Empire happened when barbarian tribes attacked from all directions.


Rome had a lot of success from its early days, but it was the changes in power and government that led to their downfall. So what can we learn from this? For your company or country to be successful, you need to make sure there is some sort of balance between maintaining tradition while adapting to the times. The Roman Empire’s failure is an important lesson on how not being open-minded enough will lead to disaster one day. We hope you have learned something about these two great civilizations.

The Roman Republic and the Empire had many differences. There were different types of government for each, there was more power in the Senate during the republic than under emperors, they both created roads but with different purposes, their economies differed as well. This article covered some of these major discrepancies between Rome’s two periods of time to give you a glimpse into how drastically things changed when it turned from an oligarchy to an autocracy. We must learn about history because if we don’t know what happened before us then we are doomed to repeat it.


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