Differences Between Ionic Covalent and Metallic Bonding

Last Updated on March 19, 2022 by QCity Editorial Stuff

Ionic and covalent bonding are two different types of chemical bonds that form between atoms. Ionic compounds like table salt (sodium chloride) and water (H 2 O) have a positive ion and a negative ion that attract each other through electrostatic forces. Covalent compounds, such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), involve the sharing of electrons with one atom donating an electron to another atom which then becomes negatively charged. Metallic bonding involves the strong attraction between positively charged metal ions in order to form metallic solids which are usually malleable metals with an affinity for gold, silver, copper, etc. 

Metals are solid materials that conduct heat and electricity. They also have a characteristic luster, malleability, ductility, and high melting point. Metals come in many different types but they all have the same basic makeup of an electron cloud surrounding a nucleus with protons and neutrons. The difference between Ionic Covalent bonding and Metallic bonding is the number of electrons around the atom’s nucleus which affects how much energy can be released from it when heated or cooled. This means that metals have more energy than ionic compounds because their electrons are not tightly bound to them so they can move freely about within its structure while ions cannot because there is only one electron for every proton making them too tightly bound together. 

Comparison between Ionic Covalent and Metallic Bonding

Parameters of ComparisonIonic CovalentMetallic Bonding
MetalIonic bonding is when metal and non-metal share electronsMetallic bonds occur when metals share electrons to form a compound
Solidscovalent molecules are only solids or liquids at room temperatureMetals can be either solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature
Positive ChargeIonic bonding is when an atom has a positive chargeother atom has a negative charge
Ferrousnon-ferrousMetals can be either ferrous
BondingCovalent bonding is a type of chemical bondingnonmetallic atoms share their valence electrons, and the resulting bond forms in a linear fashion

What is Ionic Covalent?

Ionic covalent bonding is a type of chemical bond which arises when two atoms share electrons. The shared electron pair forms what is called an ionic bond, and the resulting molecule will have one atom with a positive charge (cation) and one with a negative charge (anion). There are many examples of this type of interaction in nature; however, it also plays an important role in various industrial processes such as water purification. 

Ionic covalent bonds are stronger than the other types that exist between atoms because they involve more energy to break apart due to having charged particles on either side. This means that there is always an unequal distribution of charges within ions, leading them to have opposite charges. When they come together, the difference in charge is what holds the atoms together.

Ionic covalent bonds are a type of chemical bond that is formed when two atoms share an electron pair. These types of chemical bonds form when there’s a difference in electronegativity between the two elements, which means that one atom will have a negative charge and the other will have a positive charge. The shared electron pairs can be found on each side of this difference, with one from the negative element to the positive element and vice versa for each other. This type of bond is very strong because it takes up so much energy to break it apart. 

Differences Between Ionic Covalent and Metallic Bonding

What is Metallic Bonding?

Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the sharing of electrons between metal atoms. This allows metals to form alloys, which are solid materials made from two or more metals. Metallic bonding is responsible for the unique properties of metals, such as their strength and resistance to corrosion. In this blog post, we will explore metallic bonding in more detail and discuss some examples of alloys.

Metallic bonding is the type of chemical bonding that occurs between atoms of metals. In a metallic bond, atoms share their electrons in a way that allows them to form a “sea” of free electrons. This electron sea is responsible for the unique physical and electrical properties of metals.

Differences Between Ionic Covalent and Metallic Bonding

10 Differences Between Ionic Covalent and Metallic Bonding

1. Ionic bonding is when metal and non-metal share electrons.

2. Covalent bonding occurs between two nonmetals.

3. Metallic bonds occur when metals share electrons to form a compound.

4. In ionic bonds, the metal has an excess of electrons which it gives up to the non-metal or vice versa.

5. The metallic bond is strong because the atoms are tightly packed together in rows, like bricks on a wall.

6. Metals can be either solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature while covalent molecules are only solids or liquids at room temperature.

7) When you compare ionic and covalent compounds side by side they look different because ionic compounds have ions while covalent compounds do not have ions.

8) Ions are charged particles that carry electrical energy around the body of an atom. 

9. Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another.

10. Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bond where atoms share their outermost or valence electrons.

Interesting Statistics or Facts of Ionic Covalent

1. Ionic covalent bonds are the strongest bond type.

2. The ionic bond is formed when a metal atom loses an electron and a nonmetal atom gains it.

3. Covalent bonds are formed between two or more atoms of different elements to form molecules.

4. When atoms share electrons, they create a covalent bond.

5. A molecule is made up of at least two different types of atoms that have been bonded together by sharing their valence electrons.

6. Molecules can be either polar or nonpolar depending on how the electric charge is distributed among its constituent parts.

Interesting Statistics or Facts of  Metallic Bonding

1. Metallic bonding is the process of joining metals together by heating them to a temperature that causes their molecules to merge.

2. The resulting mixture has properties similar to those of its constituent materials, so it can be worked like either metal.

3. A good example would be steel – it’s made up primarily of iron and carbon, which are both metals.

4. The term “metallic” refers to any material consisting primarily or exclusively of one or more metallic elements (such as aluminum).

5. There are two types of metallic bonds – ionic and covalent. 

6. Ionic bonds form when atoms lose electrons during the bonding process; they’re usually stronger than covalent bonds because there’s no way for the electron-deficient atom to regain lost electrons.


Ionic covalent bonding is the attraction between oppositely charged ions. Metallic bonding is when electrons are shared by atoms of metal. Ionic covalent bonds are weaker than metallic bonds, but ionic compounds have greater structural stability because they can be formed with smaller crystals that pack more tightly together in three dimensions. Metals typically form larger crystals and less dense structures which make them easier to deform or break apart under stress according to chemistry professor Jason Wackerly at Davidson College. The difference between these two types of bonding is one reason why metals conduct electricity while nonmetallic materials do not.


Resource 01: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/introchem/chapter/comparison-between-covalent-and-ionic-compounds/
Resource 02: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metallic_bonding

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