Differences Between X and Y Chromosomes

Last Updated on March 19, 2022 by QCity Editorial Stuff

There are two types of chromosomes in humans: the X chromosome and the Y chromosome. The X chromosome, which is present in females, contains more genes than its counterpart. However, males have one additional gene on their Y chromosomes that is not found on the X chromosome. This gene codes for testosterone production. A few other genes are also found on the Y chromosome which does not exist on any other chromosomes at all. These genes allow for sperm to swim faster and provide a protective coating around them so they can survive longer when outside of a body’s reproductive system after ejaculation (Lancaster). Recently, research has shown that there may be an anti-cancer gene located somewhere between these two sex chromosomes (Kiecolt-Glaser).

The X chromosome is sex-determining. Males have only one X chromosome, and it is this that determines their genetic gender. Females have two copies of the X chromosomes, which they inherit from both parents. The Y chromosome has no significant function in determining a person’s gender; instead, its main purpose is to be an agent of sexual selection by acting as a male determinant for reproductive success. Unlike males who can only pass on their single copy of the Y gene, females can pass on both copies they inherited from each parent. This means that there are many more women than men with at least one copy of the Y gene in circulation throughout society today because those with just one copy will produce offspring while those without any copies will not reproduce (Lancaster).

Comparison between X and Y Chromosomes

Parameters of ComparisonX ChromosomesY Chromosomes
SmallThe X chromosome is the largest of all human chromosomesThe Y chromosome is the smallest of all human chromosomes
GenderThe X chromosome determines the gender of a personDo not determine
NumberFemales have two X chromosomesmales only have one
ReceiveWhen females are born, they receive an X chromosome from their mother and another one from their fatherDo not receive
MaleMales don’t inherit any genetic material from their fathers because they only get an X chromosome from their momVerse

What are X Chromosomes?

In human genetics, the X chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (the other being the Y chromosome), which determine a person’s sex. Most mammals have two copies of the X chromosome, one inherited from each parent. Humans have two different types of sex chromosomes, X and Y. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. The difference between the two types of chromosomes is that the Y chromosome contains a gene, called Sry, which causes testes to form in male embryos. Without this gene, an embryo will become female. This is why females inherit two X chromosomes—they need at least one functional copy of the Sry gene to develop as a male.

Differences Between X and Y Chromosomes

What are Y Chromosomes?

Y chromosomes are a part of the human genome that plays a role in sex determination. They are unique in that they are the only chromosomes that are passed from father to son. Y chromosomes carry genetic information that is responsible for the development of male characteristics. In addition, they also contain sequences that help regulate gene expression. So what exactly do Y chromosomes do? And how do they impact human health? This article will explore what we currently know about Y chromosomes and their role in human biology.

The Y chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in humans, along with the X chromosome. It is responsible for determining a person’s sex and for transmitting genetic information from father to son. The Y chromosome is unique in that it is the only chromosome that can be passed down from father to son unchanged. This makes it an important tool for studying human genetics and inheritance patterns.

Differences Between X and Y Chromosomes

10 Differences Between X and Y Chromosomes

1. The X chromosome contains many genes that control sex development.

2. Men typically have one Y chromosome and one X chromosome while women have two X chromosomes.

3. Women are usually shorter than men because they lack the testosterone hormone which is responsible for height in males.

4. Men produce more sperm cells than females do eggs cells due to the production of a single sperm cell versus an egg cell containing all of its genetic material.

5. The longer a woman waits to get pregnant, the higher her risk for miscarriages or birth defects will be.

6. Women who don’t ovulate after age 35 may not be able to get pregnant due to declining fertility rates.

7. Women are the only gender that can get pregnant.

8. The sex of a baby is determined by whether it inherits its mother’s or father’s chromosomes. 

9. A woman has 23 pairs of chromosomes in total – 22 pairs plus her two sex chromosomes (XX). 

10. Males inherit their XY pair from their parents, but females inherit XX from both parents.

Interesting Statistics or Facts of X Chromosomes

1. The X chromosome is the largest of all human chromosomes.

2. Females have two X chromosomes, while males only have one.

3. Humans are thought to inherit their sex from their mother’s egg cell.

4. There are over 200 genes that exist only on the X chromosome.

5. Women with Turner syndrome typically do not develop a functioning uterus or ovaries and cannot conceive children without medical intervention. 

6. Chromosomal abnormalities can lead to miscarriages, stillbirths, birth defects, learning disabilities, and behavioral problems in children.

Interesting Statistics or Facts of Y Chromosomes

1. The Y chromosome is the smallest of all human chromosomes.

2. Every cell in a man’s body has one X and one Y chromosome, while women have two X chromosomes.

3. Approximately 1 out of every 1000 children are born with an extra copy of the Y chromosome, which leads to more masculine features.

4. Women can inherit their father’s Y chromosome if they receive his sperm during fertilization.

5. A woman will always pass her mother’s mitochondrial DNA to her child because it is passed down through eggs.

6. Men are more likely than women to develop Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease before the age of 60.


The X and Y chromosomes are the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans. They determine what type of gonads a person has, which determines their reproductive system. People with an XY chromosome pair have testes, while people with XX will develop ovaries or fallopian tubes depending on other factors like hormones that signal the fetal development process before birth. Chromosomes also affect how much testosterone is produced by both sexes, but it can be higher for women than men because they produce more estrogen as well.

The difference between the X and Y chromosomes is that they determine gender. For example, if a person has an XY chromosome pair, this means they’re genetically male—and vice versa for XX chromosomes. There are also rare cases of individuals who have one X and one Y chromosome (XXY). In these cases, the individual might be considered intersex or atypical because their biology doesn’t match either male or female classification. This variance in biology can put people with only 1 sex chromosome at risk for health issues like heart disease and immune disorders as well as developmental delays. Fortunately, there’s no evidence to suggest that those with just 1 sex chromosome will experience cognitive differences from those born with 2 different ones; however, it does mean that more research is needed in this area.


Resource 01: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_chromosome
Resource 02: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/chromosome/y/

Scroll to Top