Last Updated on March 19, 2022 by QCity Editorial Stuff
The Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement are two of the most important climate change agreements in history. They have both played a significant role in reducing emissions, but there are key differences between them. The Paris Agreement is more ambitious, has more countries involved, and takes into account the need for climate justice.
The Kyoto Protocol was a landmark in international environmental law, and it is still the only binding treaty that legally binds developed countries to reduce emissions. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in 2020. It aims to limit global temperature rise by 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
The Kyoto Protocol was a groundbreaking agreement when it came into effect in 2005 because it marked the first time developing countries were included in a climate change agreement where they would be required to make commitments to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions along with industrialized countries.
Comparison between Kyoto protocol and Paris agreement
|Parameters of comparison||Kyoto protocol||Paris agreement|
|Signatories||Kyoto protocol is a treaty that has 191 signatories||Paris agreement is an accord with 195 signatories|
|Ratified||The Kyoto Protocol was ratified in 1997||Paris Agreement was ratified on November 4th, 2016|
|Cover||The Kyoto protocol only covers greenhouse gas emissions||the Paris Agreement also addresses other environmental issues such as climate change adaptation, sustainable development, and finance|
|Obligated||Countries are legally obligated to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions under the Kyoto Protocol||but not so much for the Paris Agreement|
|Reduce||In the Kyoto Protocol, countries have to reduce their emissions by 5% from 1990 levels||In the Paris agreement, countries have to reduce their emissions by 2025|
What is the Kyoto protocol?
The Kyoto Protocol is a United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) treaty. The protocol aims to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, to prevent “dangerous” anthropogenic interference with the climate system. It was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on December 11, 1997, and entered into force on February 16, 2005. As of October 2009, 191 states had signed the protocol.
To achieve its objectives, the protocol commits parties to limit their emissions of greenhouse gases. For countries to meet their commitments under the protocol, they are required to adopt national emission reduction targets. These targets must be met by 2012 for industrialized countries and by 2016 for developing countries.
What is the Paris agreement?
The Paris Agreement is an international agreement to combat climate change. It was negotiated by 195 countries and came into effect on November 4, 2016. The key points of the agreement are that countries should take action to keep global warming below two degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) until 2100, to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 Fahrenheit). Countries will cooperate in taking steps towards this goal through updating their national policies and committing funding for solar technology research among other things.
The Paris agreement is an international accord that was signed in the French capital in December 2015. The accord commits countries to attempt to limit global warming by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Countries specifically pledge “to hold the increase in the global average temperature [well below] 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5°C.
The Paris Agreement is a landmark achievement for humanity, but we must remember that it only takes one country’s withdrawal from this very important agreement for us all to be at risk of catastrophic climate change. We need every nation on board if we are going to work together and protect our planet.
10 Differences between Kyoto protocol and Paris agreement
1. Kyoto protocol is a treaty that has 191 signatories and the Paris agreement is an accord with 195 signatories.
2. The Kyoto Protocol was ratified in 1997, while the Paris Agreement was ratified on November 4th, 2016.
3. The Kyoto protocol only covers greenhouse gas emissions, whereas the Paris Agreement also addresses other environmental issues such as climate change adaptation, sustainable development, and finance.
4. Countries are legally obligated to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions under the Kyoto Protocol, but not so much for the Paris Agreement.
5. There are no sanctions imposed by either of these agreements if countries don’t meet their goals (though some may be pressured).
6. The first commitment period for both agreements lasts from 2008-2012; however, there will be four periods in total over two decades for the Paris Agreement vs three periods over 25 years for Kyoto Protocol.
7. In the Kyoto Protocol, countries have to reduce their emissions by 5% from 1990 levels while in the Paris agreement, countries have to reduce their emissions by 2025.
8. The Kyoto protocol does not include a plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions whereas the Paris agreement has a goal of limiting global warming below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
9. The Kyoto protocol is legally binding but the Paris agreement is voluntary which means that it is up to each country on whether they want to participate or not.
10. Countries can withdraw from either treaty with no penalty.
Interesting Statistics or Facts of Kyoto protocol
1. Kyoto protocol is the only treaty that legally binds all of the world’s nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.
2. The Kyoto Protocol is a series of agreements that were ratified in 1997 and went into effect in 2005.
3. Kyoto Protocol has been successful at reducing global temperatures by 0.05 degrees Celsius since it started.
4. In 2012, 192 countries had signed the agreement with 191 ratifying it.
5. China and India are not required to cut back on emissions because they were exempt from these regulations until 2030.
6. There are different types of carbon dioxide reduction targets for different countries based on their histories with climate change and economic growth rates.
7) Countries must report emission levels every year so that other countries know how much they’re contributing to climate change and can adjust accordingly if necessary.
Interesting Statistics or Facts of Paris agreement
1. The Paris Agreement was adopted by 195 nations in December 2015.
2. There are five years left to meet the agreement’s goal of limiting warming below 2 degrees Celsius.
3. The agreement includes a target to limit climate change by 2100.
4. It is the first time that all countries have come together and agreed on a plan for reducing previously voluntary emissions.
5. Countries will be required to report their progress every two years.
6. To date, 147 countries representing more than 82% of global emissions have formally joined the agreement.
Conclusion about the Differences Between Kyoto protocol and Paris agreement
The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding international agreement, and the Paris Agreement isn’t. This means that countries can withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol at any time with no consequences, but they cannot do so under the same terms for withdrawal from the Paris Agreement. For this reason, businesses who are looking to make long-term investments should be more concerned about how their country will contribute as part of the Copenhagen Accord than what it plans on doing as part of an accord reached in December 2015.
The Kyoto Protocol was negotiated in 1997 and the Paris agreement was signed into law by President Obama in 2016. Both agreements are intended to help reduce global warming, but they differ on some key points. One major difference is that while the Kyoto Protocol only covers emissions from industrialized countries, the Paris Agreement includes all nations of the world. This means developing countries signatory to this agreement has agreed to make changes too – something not required under Kyoto Protocols. Another big differentiator is that there’s no legal enforcement mechanism for compliance with either treaty – meaning if a country doesn’t comply with its commitments it faces no sanctions or punitive measures imposed upon them. Lastly, one of the most important differences between these two treaties is their expiration date; whereas after the Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012, the Paris Agreement – if successful – will continue to impact global warming well beyond 2030.
Resource 01: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyoto_Protocol
Resource 02: unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement