What Is The Difference Between DNA And RNA?

Last Updated on March 19, 2022 by QCity Editorial Stuff

These two terms are often confused and cause a lot of confusion in the context of biology. Here, we hope to clear up some confusion about these two molecules.

DNA is a molecule that encodes genetic information. It consists of a long chain of nucleotides that can be found in chromosomes. RNA is a molecule that serves as the template for the synthesis of proteins from amino acids using ribosomes.

RNA stands for ribonucleic acid which is a nucleic acid of the human body, found in all cells. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid which is found in the nucleus of almost all cells and it is the genetic material that determines an organism’s characteristics.

RNA is made up of two types, mRNA and RNA. When combined, they form ribosomes that are responsible for manufacturing proteins to maintain life functions.

DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid and is often shortened to DNA. DNA is found in the nuclei of cells, where it acts as a template on which ribonucleic acid (RNA) is synthesized.

DNA is a vital molecule that carries the genetic information of every cell in our body. It consists of four basic units called nucleotides which are abbreviated as A, T, C, and G.

Comparison Table Between DNA And RNA

Parameter of comparisonDNARNA
Genetic RNA is a key part of cells and genetic material which is involved in the translation of the genetic code to proteinsDNA is a long chain of nucleases that form a double helix.
Cell found DNA can be found inside cells that carry our genesRNA can be found outside the cells as well.
MoleculesRNA molecules are shorter than DNA molecules
RNA also acts as a messenger of information in cells.
Stands DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acidRNA stands for ribonucleic acid

What Is DNA?

What Is DNA

DNA is a long polymer, which consists of two types of molecules, nucleotides, and rib nucleotides. The order in which these molecules are arranged determines their structure. For example, adenosine monophosphate (AMP) forms the backbone of the polynucleotide while cytosine monophosphate (CMP) forms the central part.

The acronym DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is found inside the cells of all living things and contains coded instructions that tell cells what to do.

DNA is a sequence of nucleotide bases used in DNA molecules to make up genes. The sequence of bases makes up the genetic code. DNA primarily carries genetic information.

DNA is a set of instructions that makes us, you, and everyone else alive. It helps organize cells into tissues, organs, and systems that carry out the body’s many functions. It also provides instructions on how to make proteins, enzymes, regulatory molecules like hormones and neurotransmitters, and other cellular products.

DNA cannot be altered or changed by any outside agent – it’s an immutable sequence of chemical bases within cells called nucleotides

DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid making up all the genes in a living thing. It is made of molecules called nucleotides, which are composed of three parts: the sugar deoxyribose, phosphoric acid, and nitrogenous base. These three parts are bonded together by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases. The information stored in DNA provides the code for life—it controls the functions that enable an organism to survive and reproduce.

What Is RNA?

What Is RNA

RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. It is a type of nucleic acid that contains genetic information for proteins and other molecules.

In biology, RNA carries genetic instructions from DNA to the protein-making machinery of cells. In this process, RNA molecules are transcribed from DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA referred to as messenger RNA, which then goes on to instruct cells on how they should synthesize proteins.

RNA is an important molecule in the cell. It helps in protein synthesis, cell division, and gene expression.

RNA is an abbreviation for ribonucleic acid which is a complex organic molecule that can contain ribose or deoxyribose sugars and serve as the molecular unit of nucleic acids that forms RNA, DNA, and proteins.

The role of RNA in the cell is one of its most important tasks. The molecule helps in protein synthesis, cell division, and gene expression by acting as a template for making proteins or enzymes.

10 Differences Between DNA And RNA 

Structure: DNA and RNA are both molecules that can be found in cells. DNA is made up of two strands, which are made up of four components called bases. These bases pair together to form the famous double helix structure. It is also important to note that DNA is composed of nucleic acids, which are different from nucleotides found in RNA.

Component: DNA has a double helix structure while RNA has a single strand. -DNA strands are made up of four components called bases (adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T)) while RNA only has uracil (U).

Molecule: DNA is a complex molecule, with a double helix structure. It consists of two complementary strands of nucleotides that are connected by hydrogen bonds. While RNA is a single-stranded molecule that extends from the DNA helix, uses the same nucleotides, but has a different sugar-phosphate backbone.

System: DNA is found in almost all living organisms. A process called transcription takes place in the nucleus and leads to protein synthesis as ribosomes read mRNA molecules and make proteins as they move along messenger RNA strands. In contrast, RNA molecules are used as templates for the synthesis of RNAs because it plays an important role in gene expression and protein synthesis.

Contains: Unlike DNA which contains genetic information, RNA is only involved in gene expression and protein synthesis because it’s not found in living organisms that contain

Function: The two most important jobs of DNA are to store genetic information and to act as the template for the production of proteins. The job of RNA is to carry out functions that mRNA can’t do, such as catalyzing chemical reactions. RNA is also involved in the transfer of genetic information into proteins that are needed for life.

Backbone: The main difference between these two molecules is that DNA has a backbone made up of four different kinds of nucleotides while RNA does not have a backbone. The other difference between these two molecules is that while RNA can be translated into mRNA to create proteins, this process happens in the cell nucleus while the translation process for DNA takes place in mitochondria.

Acid: DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. These two molecules are used in the production of proteins, which is how cells function. The main difference between RNA and DNA is that RNA is made up of ribose while DNA is made up of deoxyribose.

Building: The human genome is the entirety of the 23 pairs of chromosomes that make up a person’s DNA. The genome contains all of the genetic information needed to build and maintain a human body. Meanwhile, RNA stands for ribonucleic acid and it is one kind of macromolecule that is found in the cells. RNA creates proteins including enzymes, hormones, and antibodies.

Genetic Testing: DNA is often used in genetic testing, while RNA is involved in gene expression and also has various roles in all metabolic pathways.

Interesting Statistics Or Facts Of DNA 

1) Humans have 2% of their genes in common with a banana.

2) A human’s left hand has about 400 genes while a mouse’s right hand has only 200 genes.

3) A human being’s cells contain about 3-5 trillion copies of their genome.

4) The Human Genome Project took 12 years and cost around US$3 billion.

5) The first scientific description of DNA was written by Isaac Newton in 1666

6) In 2001, RIKEN scientists discovered a new form of life.

7) Without DNA, life would not exist.

8) It is estimated that humans have about three billion base pairs.

9) We all contain the same amount of genetic material – 23 pairs of chromosomes.

10) A human cell consists of about 100 trillion cells and each cell contains 37 genes.

Interesting Statistics Or Facts Of RNA 

1) RNA is a nucleic acid that carries the instructions for making proteins and regulating gene expression.

2) One of the most important RNA molecules in humans is messenger RNA (mRNA), which carries the genetic code of every human cell.

3) RNA is a nucleic acid, the backbone of all life. It is found in many different organisms and is necessary for building proteins and regulating gene expression.

4) RNA has been proven to be important in the development of new drug treatments for cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, HIV/AIDS, and many other diseases.

5) RNA is the chemical that makes up ribosomes. It is a complex molecule that is essential for all living organisms.

6) RNA was found by Friedrich Miescher in 1869.

7) The average human body contains about 100 trillion cells, but one human cell has about 10,000 RNA molecules.

8) RNA has been used to identify ancient DNA in ancient humans and Neanderthals.

9) When RNA is used to study genes it can be vulnerable to contamination, so scientists use a process called ChIP-Seq to isolate the RNA from the cells and extract the proteins from the cellular extract.

10) There are about three billion ribosomes per cell – each with its own set of rRNA genes that encode proteins under the direction of mRNA genes that encode proteins by reading

Conclusion About The Differences Between Dna And Rna 

Now we will compare and contrast DNA and Rna in terms of how they work, their kinds, and what they do.

DNA is a two-stranded molecule that stores genetic information. It contains the genetic code of an organism.

Rna is a one-stranded molecule that carries the information from DNA to the ribosome where proteins are synthesized. RNA is then broken down into proteins that have been translated from mRNA.

DNA is found in cells while Rna can be found outside cells in a variety of forms including ribosomes, viruses, bacteria, etc.

There are different kinds of RNA molecules such as messenger RNA or transfer RNA which carry out various tasks such as making proteins or transferring amino acids to the cytoplasm for cell growth and repair.


Resource 01: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/basics/dna/
Resource 02: https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/RNA-Ribonucleic-Acid#:~:text

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